a new technology AI blood test to successfully detect lung cancer In a study of 724 people, it detected more than 80% of liver cancers. This new system was developed by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in the United States. The blood test, called DELFI, detects fragmentation changes in the DNA of cancer cells shed into the bloodstream, known as cell-free DNA (cfDNA).
In the most recent study, researchers used DELFI technology In blood plasma samples from 724 people from the United States, European Union and Hong Kong to detect hepatocellular cancer, a type of liver cancer. They believe this is the first independently validated whole-genome fragmentation analysis in two high-risk populations with different causes associated with liver cancers and in different racial and ethnic groups, the results of which are published in the journal Cancer Discovery. American Cancer Research Association Tutoring: Precision Prevention, Early Detection, and Cancer Prevention.
400 million people are at risk of developing HCC
The guess is that Worldwide, 400 million people are at increased risk of developing HCC due to the chronic liver disease cirrhosis.includes chronic viral hepatitis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, according to a global analysis of the liver disease burden. D., professor of oncology and co-director of the Genetics and Epigenetics Program in Cancer at Johns Hopkins. “Earlier detection of liver cancer can save lives, but currently available screening tests are underused and miss many cancers,” explains Victor Velculescu. The Kimmel Cancer Center, which led the study with Zachariah Foda, a gastroenterologist; Akshaya Annapragada, a student, and Amy Kim, an assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Of the 724 plasma samples examined, 501 people were recruited in the United States and EU, where they included samples of 75 people with HCC to train and validate the machine learning model, Foda explains that it is a type of artificial intelligence in which data and algorithms are used to improve accuracy. On the other hand, 223 plasma samples from individuals from Hong Kong were further analyzed for validation, and samples from 90 with HCC, 66 with hepatitis B virus, 35 with HBV-related liver cirrhosis and 32 without HCC were added. factors.
DELFI technology uses a blood test To measure how DNA is packaged within a cell’s nucleus, the size and amount of cell-free DNA circulating from different parts of the genome is studied.
Healthy cells pack DNA like a well-organized suitcase. where different regions of the genome are inserted into various compartments. Cancer cell nuclei, by contrast, are highly disordered suitcases with elements randomly thrown throughout the genome. When? cancer cells die, releasing bits of DNA in a chaotic fashion, andn blood circulation.
What DELFI does detect the presence of cancer by analyzing millions of cfDNA fragments looking for abnormal patterns, including the size and amount of DNA in different genomic regions. The researchers say the DELFI method only requires low coverage sequencing, making this technology affordable in a scanning environment.
In the last study, the researchers performed the test on cfDNA fragments isolated from plasma samples. and analyzed the fragmentation patterns of each sample to develop a DELFI score. Scores were lower for non-cancerous individuals with viral hepatitis or cirrhosis (median DELFI score was 0.078 and 0.080, respectively) although on average 5 to 10 times higher for 75 HCC patients in the US/US samples. high scores observed in all stages cancerincluding early stage disease.
at the test fragmentation changes detected in content and packaging of liver cancer genomes, including regions of the genome associated with liver-specific activity.
“could double the number of detected liver cancer cases”
“Nowadays, less than 20% of the high-risk population is screened for liver cancer due to accessibility and poor test performance. This new blood test could double the number of liver cancer cases detected compared to the current standard blood test, and early diagnosis cancer,” explains study co-author Kim.
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